Dependent (outcome) variable: Continuous/numerical/scale (some disciplines also test ordinal data)
Independent (predictor/explanatory) variable: Time or condition (3+ levels)
Assumptions: The dependent variable (or residuals) should be approximately normally distributed at each level . If a histogram or QQplot suggests the residuals are vey skewed or the dependent variable is ordinal, a Friedman test (which is based on ranks rather than the raw data) should be used. Some people use parametric tests for ordinal data if there are quite a few categories but be careful when interpreting differences
Data notes Ensure there is one row per participant with a different column for the dependent variable for each condition/time point.
Click on the download button to get the appropriate resource for the test and software package you want help with.
|SPSS||R Sheet||R Script||Jamovi||SAS||
|Repeated measures ANOVA|
|Friedman test (Non-parametric repeated measures ANOVA)|